Atomic physics studies about the atoms which isolates the system of electrons and an atomic nucleus. This deals with the properties of atoms, which are mostly due to their electron configuration. Atomic physics is mostly concerned with electrons encircling the nucleus of an atom. It has led to vital applications in medicine, lasers, communications, etc. and similarly providing a testing ground for Quantum Theory, Quantum Electrodynamics and its derivatives.
Quantum physics also known as quantum mechanics which includes the quantum field theory is a division of physics which describes the nature at the minimum scales of energy levels of subatomic particles and atoms. Quantum physics can release the separate performances of the subatomic particles that consists all forms of matter (electrons, protons, neutrons, photons, and others). Heavy nucleus which contains hundreds of nucleons is treated as a quantum-mechanical one.
Atomic and Molecular Astrophysics
Atomic Astrophysics implements atomic physics calculations which use atomic data for reading astronomical observations. Atomic physics plays a main role in the arena of astrophysics because the astronomers get the information about any particular object through the emitted light, as this light will arise through the atomic transitions. Molecular Astrophysics studies about the emission of molecules which are in space. The molecules which are having more number of observable transitions are nearly 110 interstellar molecules.
Atomic collisions are elementary collisions that occur between two atomic particles such as atoms, molecules, electrons or ions. This kind of collisions is two types, they are elastic collisions and inelastic collisions. In an Elastic collision the total energy remains the same before and after the collision, where the directions of motion of the particles are transformed and the kinetic energy is merely distributed among the particles. In an Inelastic collision the internal energy of the colliding particles will change where these particles go through transitions to different energy levels and the electronic state of an atom or a molecule is changed.
Atomic spectroscopy studies about the electromagnetic radiation absorbed and emitted by atoms. In the purpose of elemental compositions the electromagnetic spectrum or mass spectrum is applied that can be distributed by the type of spectroscopy used or with the atomization source. For regular use the technology of atomic spectroscopy has generated three techniques such as Atomic Absorption, Atomic Emission and Atomic Fluorescence. The transitions involve the relaxation and excitation of the outer or bonding shell electrons of metal ions and atoms and the corresponding photons have energies inside the visible regions of the spectrum and ultraviolet. A decent instance of this is the dark absorption lines in the solar spectrum
Laser stands for Light Amplification through Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The physics of an atom laser is similar to that of an optical laser and the main difference between an optical and an atom laser is that atoms interact with themselves, cannot be created as photons and retain mass whereas photons do not. Key applications of the atom laser are atom holography and atom interferometry.
Cold Atoms and Molecules
Cold atoms are that are maintained at the temperatures close to zero Kelvin typically below the temperatures of some tenths of microkelvins (µK). The atom's quantum mechanical properties become important at these temperatures. Cold molecules suggestion exciting properties on which new operational principles are to be based or that may allow the researchers to study a qualitatively new behaviour of the matter for e.g., Bose-Einstein condensates structured by the electric dipole interaction. To reach such low temperature combination of several techniques are used such as atoms are usually trapped and pre-cooled using the laser cooling in a magneto-optical trap technique.
Nano Engineering and Technology
The Nanomaterial with diameter <100 nm can be used to reduce the size of data processing parts of most usable devices such as cell phones and lap computers. Nanotechnology is used for renewable energy as the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) solar cells was increased by Nanotechnology, while their manufacturing and electricity production costs were reduced at a record rate.
- Nano Technology for Solar power collection
- Energy efficiency through Nano Technology
- Energy Applications of Nano Technology
- Nano Fuel Cells - Energy Storage
- Contribution towards Energy solutions
Theoretical physics is a division of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to streamline, explain and predict natural phenomena. This is in divergence to experimental physics, which uses experimental tools to probe these phenomena.
- String theory
- Theoretical high energy physics
- Lattice gauge theory
- Modern physics
- Particle and nuclear theory
- Astrophysics and cosmology
- Mathematical physics
- Knot theory and Topology
Condensed matter physics
Condensed Matter Physicists study how matter arises from an enormous number of interacting electrons and atoms, and what physical properties it’s as a result of these interactions. The field of condensed matter physics discovers the macroscopic and microscopic properties of matter. The main attention is waged to physics of solid, liquid and, phase equilibria, amorphous systems and phase transitions, electric, magnetic, thermal, structural and optical properties of condensed matter Physics.
- Condensed matter theory
- Study in condensed matter physics through scattering
- Numerical analysis & modelling in condensed matter physics
- Experimental condensed matter physics
- Theoretical models
- Study of matter through scanning tunnelling microscope
Photonics, Optics and Laser technology
The term photonics was first developed as an outgrowth of the sensible semiconductor light emitters. It is the science which belongs to physics department which provides the assumed of sunshine (photon) generation, detection and manipulation through various processes like transmission, emission, signal processing, modulation, amplification, switching and sensing.
- Fibre optics components, equipment and systems
- Optics for astronomy
- Optical manipulation techniques, spectroscopies, and scattering techniques
- Lasers and semiconductors
- Adaptive optics
- Optical instrumentation
- Optical fabrication
- Optics in astronomy and astrophysics
- Integrated photonics