Day 1 full schedule
September 17, 2020 @ 10:00 - 11:15
Pradip PofaliGeologist and Graphopsychologist
Recall, as a budding geologist you started studying origin of earth and then as a palaeontologist evolution of life. Either of those are dynamic processes and getting modified gradually. Earth mass separated into continents and still on move with the expression as orogeny, earthquakes and volcanoes. While life starting from unicelled organism to the specie we are most interested are Homo Sapiens. For a very long period, mostly, this evolution /modification was at its own pace. However, experiential learning started modifying the life of evolutionary human being and now we are at INDUSTY 4.0. Starting from fulfilling basic needs to extending into greed which accelerated the speed and impact on earth resources leading to waring factions.
Few months back National Green Tribunal (NGT), apex body, issued stern warning on the use of water, the second most needed resource, after oxygen, for our survival. All living things draw resources from earth. Imagine, total daily activities and you will find that each useful thing is from earth. Our all activities result into disturbing the equilibrium and that is impacting the existing environment. Nature has a cycle and pace to restore the balance. Why is it happening?? It is because of silo thinking as subject expert and as an individual greed.
Earthquake fatalities are estimated within less than an hour worldwide by QLARM of (ICES Foundation1, 2) , and by PAGER (United States Geological Survey). Both services are free and yield approximately the same results, although they use different data sets and algorithms. This is encouraging because it gives first responders the information needed for scaling the response to earthquake disasters. Inaccuracies in near real-time earthquake loss estimates are due to unknown length and direction of ruptures, uncertain depths and magnitude (M). QLARM operators have issued 1,200 free near real-time alerts during the last 17 years Estimates of losses expected due to future repeats of historic earthquakes require definition of the position and length of the rupture, from which M is derived. Verification earthquakes are historic events for which position, M, the field of shaking (intensity), and the number of fatalities are known. For India, the calculated matches of these parameters for five validation cases have been reported3. modeled a possible repeat of the 1555 Himalayan earthquakes in two ways. Here, Figure 2 shows a model of the 1555 earthquake with an intermediate M7.8, assumed to occur during day time when many are outdoors. In such a case, the numbers of expected fatalities and injured are calculated to be in the ranges of 40K to 300K and 150K to 900K, respectively. Authorities should be prepared to deal with this order of magnitude of casualties. Defining the number of affected people as those living in areas expected to experience intensity VI+ shaking is 87 million, the heavily affected people (intensity VIII+) are estimated to number 9.2 million. At present, the data that would be necessary to calculate the conditions of hospitals and schools after an earthquake are not available, although information on these critical facilities in earthquake disasters is vital.
University of Riau
Indonesia is famous for its peat forest population. Peat forests are the most important terrestrial carbon reserves (C) in the world. At present, the existence of peat swamp forests is increasingly threatened by the conversion pulpwood plantations. Therefore, research on changes in stock C and its economic value is important. This study aims to (1) to determine changes in stock C in the conversion of peat forests to pulpwood forest plantations, (2) to obtain the economic value of carbon peat forests and pulpwood plantations, and (3) to evaluate the role of industrial plantations pulpwood in peatlands in support of climate change mitigation. Inventory C is calculated by an allometric equation, and economic C with economic income from the REDD approach (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation). The results showed that conversion from logged-over forests and secondary forests caused a decrease in C stock of 103.53 and 61.02 tons / ha / year, whereas conversion from degraded forest caused an increase in C stock of 22.47 tons / ha / year. The economic value of the pulpwood industrial timber plantations is IDR 15.56 million / ha. Based on REDD in industrial pulpwood plantations from degraded land causes an increase in NPV of 20.21% and 51.13% for compensation prices of US $ 9 and 12 / tCO-e. REDD projects in logged-over forests provide higher economic value to pulpwood plantations at compensation prices of US $ 9 and 12 / tCO-e (both in conservation and logging conservation scenarios). From this research it is evident that the carbon of peat swamp forest is actually more economically valuable than the pulpwood plantations
Rahul VermaBotswana University
The Mupane gold deposits, are located in an area known as the Mupanipani Hills, ridges formed by outcrops of banded siliceous and graphitic iron formation (GIF). These units of so called “Iron Ore Formation” are hosted by a sequence of metasediments, including coarse grained carbonate bearing conglomerates, para-amphibolies, marbles, metapelites and minor orthoamphibolites of Proterozoic rocks, ranging in age from 1.8 to 2.5 billion years old. The ore is found in - ML Tau, Tholo, Kwena Tawana, Signal Hill and Molomolo M Ls Signal Hill. The present study was carried out at Tau pit.
The working in the open pit and underground mines, face several risks and the instability and failure of slopes, is one of the bigger threats. The causative factors may be geotectonic, mineralogical geomorphological, human or a combination of all. The geotectonic set up of the Mupane Gold Mine is very complex and has several aggravating factors which can be summarized as the following: dolerite dykes and gabbroic sills south of Mine area, three thrust systems, numerous NNW SSE trending faults within LM5 Mafic Schists, granitic intrusion at the NE margin.
Suresh AluviharaUniversity of Peradeniya
Dolomite is an industrial mineral which is found in dolomite rocks that associated with calcites from various locations in the world since it is having a series of industrial applications such as the lime production and refractory materials. Sri Lanka is a country that rich in a few of known areas for the deposits of dolomite although the industrial applications were limited for primary or less number of advanced industrial applications. As the new innovative research works in the modern world, there were investigated some important advanced industrial uses of dolomite in the water treatment applications such as the removal of hardness of water, removal of heavy metals and removal of unnecessary ions from the waste water based on the performances of some components of dolomite. In the existing research, there were expected to characterize the Dolomites that available in Matale area, Sri Lanka and disclose the advanced properties of such dolomite. The collected dolomite samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer and optical microscope. The obtained results showed the presence of higher calcite content while having trace amount of dolomites according to the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic results, >99% of Ca with <1% of K as the metallic elements according to the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopic results and both tabular and massive crystals in white, colorless and reddish colors. Therefore, the characterized dolomite is possible to be developed for the water treatment applications such as the removal of hardness and heavy metals due to the adsorption capacity of dolomites and calcites and removal of unnecessary ions from waste water due to the ion exchanging ability of Ca2+ ion.
Davide ForcelliniUniversity of Auckland
University of Auckla
Climate change is modifying our attitude toward pre- and post- event assessments since unprecedented levels of destruction need renewed focus on addressing and protecting from natural disasters, Figure 1 (Balston et al., 2013). Tragic events forced the scientific community to move their attention from vulnerability and risk assessment to new design and evaluation approaches that have to consider and involve many different disciplines: economics, political science, engineering, environmental planning, social science, etc..
In this background, the concept of resilience has become the natural approach of the scientific world community (EU: Caverzan and Salomon, USA: 2014 Gidaris et al., 2017) with applications in many fields, such as the original contest of ecology to disciplines of psychology and psychiatry in the 1940s. Today resilience has been applied in many fields, especially disaster management, proposing new approaches to disaster and policy options, Figure 2, (Forcellini, 2019). In particular, resilience to multiple hazards is a dynamic, non-linear and cross-linked concept embracing many uncertainties and interdisciplinary issues. Currently (Ranjbar and Naderpour, 2020), resilience is the product of theoretical and practical approaches continuously refined over the past three decades. This has led to multiple definitions and the need of new terminology and/or metrics that should be harmonized. The present contribution will present several definitions in order to give the basic knowledge to develop further research contributions.