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Agenda

Full-day Events with Awesome Speakers

Conference Schedule

Day 1 full schedule

November 25, 2020 @ 10:00 - 18:00

Jurisprudence aspects of forensic sciences and challenges ahead

GK Goswami

GK Goswami

Indian Police Service

Central Bureau of Investigation, India

India

ABSTRACT

Forensic Sciences or Criminalistics is blend of various disciplines of science and law which helps to corroborate facts in the ‘quest for truth’ necessary in the administration of justice. Forensic inputs are expert opinions of domain specialists which instil scientific temper and fairness in investigation and trial process. In Forensics, reliability and admissibility are essential ingredients, which are determined by the Frye standard (1923) and the Daubert standard (1993). Various forensic evidences have global recognition and India also use both in criminal adjudication and civil dispute resolution. Only a few branches of forensic sciences have been recognized under Indian procedural laws, but many of them such as DNA profiling and voice spectroscopy are yet to find a place in the Indian legal lexicon. The issues related to the right against self-incrimination under Article 20(3) of the Indian constitution and right to privacy are crucial for understanding the jurisprudential perspective of forensics in the Indian context. Forensic inputs enhance probity of material evidence, particularly corroborating oral testimony. Science may be infallible, but human involvement introduces the element of error, either voluntarily or involuntarily, which may end up frustrating instead of furthering the ends of justice. Forensic frauds are not unknown in the global landscape, which warrants utmost care in usage of forensic evidence. Chain of custody in this regard becomes very crucial to maintain integrity of forensic sample and to arrest possible manipulation and tampering. India needs to enhance its forensic capability in terms of laboratories and trained manpower. With global experience, it can be safely said that forensic science has a bright future in the delivery of justice.  

Efficacy of histopathology in forensic practice

Shankar M Bakkannavar

Shankar M Bakkannavar

Associate Professor

Kasturba Medical College, India

India

ABSTRACT

The forensic histopathology plays an important role in routine medico legal practice. It is helpful to establish the cause of death in many cases. The tissue samples taken from the major internal organs and from abnormal findings made at post-mortem examination are analysed for microscopic changes in the tissues and representative cell. Many a times, when the cause of death is not clear based on external examination or internal findings, the target organ or the tissue needs to be subjected for histopathological examination. Properly using the method and adhering to the standard guidelines set out for conventional histological/ cytological staining and enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical methods is essential prerequisite for the histopathology. The interpretation of histological findings is always dependent upon the macroscopic findings as well as the history provided by the law enforcing agency or the treating physician. In case of sudden suspicious deaths or hospitalised cases where the exact cause of death is difficult to be determined in presence of obscure autopsy findings, the histopathological examination in mostly plays a significant role. In such cases the though the history and external findings are clear, sometimes ascertaining the exact cause of death is impossible unless we take the support of histopathology services. The histopathological examination also helps to find out the time since injury when the alleged incident’s time is in question and to find out whether the injury in question is ante-mortem or post-mortem in nature. Occasionally, the incidental finding may be found during histopathological examination may guide the forensic pathologist to keep such entities in mind which can be used in future autopsies.  Thus helping him to expand his existing knowledge regarding ascertaining the cause in uncertain cases. Histological analysis may prompt post-mortem biochemical and chemical-toxicological investigations.

Insights into the chromatographic and DNA based molecular approaches in forensic entomology

Shyamapada Mandal

Shyamapada Mandal

Professor

University of Gour Banga, India

India

ABSTRACT

The current communication updates the application of molecular and chromatographic techniques instudying the insects of forensic interest. Forensic entomology, which relies on the study of insects growing with different life forms, and feeding on cadavers or in the place of crime, is an important tool in felonious investigations. This is an emerging topic of forensic science research under the purview of illicit drug use (medico-criminal entomology), bites, stings or allergic reactions (medical entomology), and stored-product forensic entomology determining the source and reason of food infestations. Forensic entomological evidence, on the basis of identification of different stages of insect life-cycle, is used to illuminate the advancement of alterations and damages to corpses, or the injuries. Nowadays molecular analysis are applied in identifying the forensically important insect species diversity that provides DNA database for further use in forensic entomology in criminal investigations.The chromatographic study on the other hand scientifically justifies the presence of toxic substances or poisons in the crime scene involving insects.

The role of sport in crime prevention

Hassan Mohammadi Nevisi

Hassan Mohammadi Nevisi

Associate Professor

Selinus University of Sciences and Literature, Italy

Italy

ABSTRACT

Enriching young people's leisure time, especially sports and physical activity, is one of the ways to prevent crime in the community, because young people have a lot of latent energy that leads to crime and unemployment if they do not use it properly.

Valuable steps can be taken if young people are brought to the sports grounds to prevent social anomalies and injuries. Exercise and mobility can play a significant role in preventing crime and social abnormalities. Given that the occurrence of root mass in some personality traits such as impulse control; lack of energy, shyness and anger, aggressive and stressful individuals, therefore regular exercise can lead to physiological-hormonal changes in athletes. Ultimately, it controls the personality traits of the offender, as exercise changes the brain's oxygen levels, leading to changes in cognition and thinking, and can influence decisions and actions toward others, especially marital weight. Physical in reducing personal and social inadequacies and in reducing psychological stress It is effective and establishes the mental balance of the organism. Individuals acquire the necessary mental, physical and mental balance by engaging in motor activity and gain the ability to cope with the pressures and problems of modern life. It is a crime that takes place under certain circumstances due to the various conflicts and psychological conflicts and pressures on the weaknesses of one's personality and the inability to withstand the pressures and disruption of the organism's psychological balance. Finally, we conclude that exercise plays a key role in preventing crime and social harm.

Forensic toxicology in developing Countries

Dr. Amarnath Mishra

Dr. Amarnath Mishra

Assistant Professor

Amity University, India

India

ABSTRACT

In forensic toxicology, screening and interpretation of forensic drug and alcohol and post-mortem investigation are two major section. The first issue of forensic drug screening is the accessibility of biological samples and the second issue is the availability of sensitive and key analytical methods for accurate detection, identification and quantification of specific chemical components. The basic aim of drug screening is to identify biological samples that contain specific drugs under investigation and to rapidly screen out samples that do not contain the drug. The sensitivity of the analytical technique is an important issue since chemicals may be present in trace amounts in biological matrices. Improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of analytical techniques have been attained by combining chromatographic methods, in order to efficient separations of compounds of interest from biological matrices, with mass spectrometry. The confirmatory analysis provides an increased level of assurance that a false positive result has not been obtained in the initial screening phase. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is a commonly used confirmatory technique as it is specific for particular compounds and is quantitatively accurate and precise at low concentrations. Stability of drugs in biological specimens is extremely important in forensic toxicology. Post-mortem forensic investigations are performed on suspicion of drug overdose with either illicit or prescription drugs and in cases of suicide or homicide due to poisoning with several toxic substances. Drug and alcohol levels in death cases can be a major factor in helping determine the cause and the role of culprits in both criminal and civil legal proceedings.

Antidiabetic screening model using chick embryos

Srividya Lonkala

Srividya Lonkala

Associate Professor

Karunya Institute of Technology, India

India

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic syndrome with hyperglycemia. The present investigation is carried to find whether young chickens with diabetes could be developed by treating the chick during embryonic stage with streptozotocin or alloxan to develop an alternative animal models. Hatched eggs were taken, on the day 14 of incubation, holes were made on the shells of the eggs by using driller, and then were injected with STZ [0.3mg/kg] and alloxan. Control group kept without any treatment [n=8 per group]. The holes were closed using tape and the eggs were incubated for another 7days. Chicks came out were kept in specially made cages. After two weeks, blood glucose levels were estimated using chemstrip method using Glucometer. Hyperglycemic chicks were separated and treated with standard drug glipizide[0.5mg/kg]. The blood glucose levels were estimated at different time intervals [30, 60, 120 min].   The results of the present study indicate that STZ, alloxan- if administered during embryonic stage would result in a stable diabetic chicks after hatching and this model can be used to screen drugs for anti-diabetic activity. 

Beyond flavors and aromas: Spices the new age nutraceuticals

Sunita Singh

Sunita Singh

Assistant Professor

Navyug Kanya Mahavidyalaya Lucknow, University of Lucknow, India

India

ABSTRACT

Since time immemorial, spices have played a vital role in world trade due to their varied properties and applications. India is offering abundant quantities of pepper, ginger, turmeric, chilli, cardamom, celery, fenugreek, fennel, cumin, dill, coriander, cinnamon, ajwain, cassia, cloves, nutmeg and mace to the world. In recent decades, with the advancement in the different analytical techniques, knowledge about the spices, their chemistry and the pharmacological effects of their active constituents were investigated more thoroughly. Both in vitro and in vivo studies documented digestive stimulant action, hypolipidemic effect, antidiabetic influence, antilithogenic property, antioxidant potential, antiinflammatory property, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic potential of spices [1]. Among these, the hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant properties of a few specific spices have far-reaching nutraceutical value. Nutraceutical word derived from nutrition and pharmaceutical  which is applied to products that range from isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and herbal products [2]. In the last few decades, due to the green consumerism, people are shifting their attention towards the product of natural origin. Scientists and health experts have started to recognize the value of the product of natural origin in human health and this has thus led to the positive growth of nutraceuticals and functional food markets all over the globe. Spices with so many beneficial properties are a potential candidate of research for nutraceutical industries [2]. Nutraceuticals use spices for their phytonutrients, essential oils, antioxidants and vitamins which are known to have disease preventing and health promoting properties. The most extensively researched spice present in virtually each and every Indian kitchen is turmeric—Curcuma longa—which is found to exhibit excellent chemopreventive, immune enhancing, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions, which can be applied in many disease areas [3]. The non-traditional use of spices as fortified food and organic medicines is an emerging field for the industries.

Forensic entemotoxicology in Indian perspective and determination of post mortem interval

Mayank Kumar Dubey

Mayank Kumar Dubey

Assistant Professor

Forensic Laboratory and CID Police Forensic Lab, India

India

ABSTRACT

Forensic entomology deals with interactions of insects and flies with dead bodies. Forensic entomology is the branch of Forensic science in which information about insects is used to draw conclusions when investigating legal cases relating to both humans and wild life, it  can also include other arthropods for the same purpose. In ecological turnover of nature, the decay of terrestrial vertebrates is dominated by sarcosaprophagous insects. On dead human bodies their action is normally inhibited by various measures such as burning or burying. Nevertheless, the exceptional circumstances occurring in connection with crimes or sudden deaths may expose human bodies to natural effects of environment, including invasion by sarcosaprophagous insects. These insects have sense organs highly adapted to the detection of corpses, and thus are the first to arrive at the scene of death. Conclusions about the time of crime can often be drawn from the character of insect fauna on the corpse and from stage of development of their larvae. After death the tissues of animals, including man, are still attractive to a variety of insects and other invertebrates. Flies, especially their larvae or maggots, figure largely in this fauna and include some of the species involved in myiasis. Insects and other arthropods found at a death scene can provide corroborating evidence regarding both the time and place of death as well as possible ante mortem and post mortem treatment of the victim. In addition to their use in the estimation of post mortem interval, insects may serve as reliable alternate specimens for toxicological analysis in the absence of tissues and fluids normally taken for such purposes. Because these factors can sometimes contribute to, or indicate the manner of death, it is important to know whether drugs, toxins consumption occurred prior to death. Pig’s flesh was used to study the life cycle of sarcosaprophagous flies. Since the use of pig’s meat represents a methodological procedure to get an estimation of insects’ presence as "forensic indicators". Chrysomya megacephala and Sarcophaga sp. were reared in laboratory for research purposes. The larvae were reared in moist conditions in containers open to air and the life tables were constructed in the laboratory.  Chrysomya megacephala was the primary species to breed on flesh and was found throughout the year. In this study, the oldest maggots were collected because the most mature maggots indicate minimum time since death of a person as they have grown from eggs or larvae, in case of flesh flies which are deposited on the body after the person has died. The larvae were killed by blanching them in boiling water and then preserved in 70-80% alcohol. The third instar of blow flies and flesh flies was identified with the help of posterior spiracles in this investigation. The effect of Poisons were studied on the life cycle of Chrysomya megacephala and Sarcophaga sp. There was increase in duration of life cycle of flies, increase in length of third instars and decrease in percentage survival of flies. The presence of poison in larvae of flies was confirmed. The PMI estimation using the concept of accumulated degree days shows that it gives good results in actual cases also.

To study the difference between three types of tears: Using Reverse Phase- High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC)

Anshumali Gaikwad

Anshumali Gaikwad

Assistant Professor

Cathena Education, Mumbai, India

India

ABSTRACT

The precorneal film present on the human ocular surface constantly does the function of keeping the eye orbit moist and lubricated. The precorneal film has three layers; mucin layer, aqueous layer and lipid layer. Each layer is dependent on each other to keep human eye immune and together mixture of components. These chemical components get secreted in the precorneal film at a constant rate under normal condition known as Basal tears or continuous tears and gets altered when subjected to reflexes, known as Reflex tears. Humans project their thoughts in the form of lacrimation (crying), in either a positive way or negative way, known as Emotional (psychic) tears. As each type of tear shed, are spilled on subjection to various stimuli, will change chemicals in each tear and this fact has formed the base of this study, to differentiate tears on the basis of concentration of ascorbic acid present and test this hypothesis by using statistics parameters, which on completion of this experiment was found to be true and significantly different.

The effect of sedative drug on time duration of life cycle stages of Chrysomyamegacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

Shabnamnaz Siddiki

Shabnamnaz Siddiki

Research scholar

Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, India

India

ABSTRACT

Entomotoxicology is the finest branch of forensic entomology.  The probable use of arthopods for for detecting sedative drugs and other toxic substances in decomposing tissues has been widely demonstrated. In death investigation, Diptera and other arthropods can be reliable alternate specimen for toxicological analysis in the absence of tissues and fluids. The presence of sedative in dead tissues can also causes the effect on longevity and development of life cycle stages of insects. In present study, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species was selected for estimating time duration of life cycle stages during exposure in different concentration of sedative drug.

Coupling of microextraction with thin layer chromatography – image analysis: a new analytical platform in analytical toxicology

Rajeev Jain

Rajeev Jain

Professor

Central Forensic Science Laboratory, India

India

ABSTRACT

Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is known for its simplicity, simple operation, easy sample preparation, low cost of analysis, versatile visual detections and vide range of applicability. Recently, microextraction techniques have emerged as an eco-friendly and cost-effective alternative of traditional liquid-liquid extraction which are greatly discouraged due to its well known disadvantages such as consumption of large amount of toxic extraction solvent, labor intensiveness, emulsion formulation and need of additional preconcentration step. Coupling of microextraction technique with TLC-image processing technique results in a simple, rapid, effective, environmental friendly and cheap analytical method which does not require any sophisticated analytical instrument and skilled manpower. This new approach has been applied for analysis of drugs and toxic alkaloids in samples of forensic interests1-3. This will also pave the way to extend the scope of analytical method development for other important classes of drugs and pesticides etc.

Current techniques used in diatoms test and its future perspective

Priyanka Verma

Priyanka Verma

Assistant professor

Chandigarh University, India

India

ABSTRACT

DNA analysis is presently use to   identify humans  as well as   plants and animals . Forensic DNA   is a branch   of forensic science that focuses on the use of genetic material   to answer questions pertaining to legal situations, including both criminal and civil. It is a   technique   used in comparing criminal suspects' profiles to DNA evidence found at scene of occurrence so as to assess the likelihood of their involvement in the crime. Thus, DNA Fingerprinting analysis aids in the personal identification for forensic purposes   and has always been a driving motivation for law enforcement agencies in almost all countries since its inception. The introduction of DNA markers (Y-STR) has allowed for greater precision and higher discriminatory power in forensic testing. A criminal/ person committing crime after Bone Marrow Transplantation are a rare situation but not impossible one. Keeping such situation in mind, a study was carried out to find out the best biological sample to be used for personal identification especially in forensic situation. We choose female patient (recipient ) and a male donor. The pre transplant  sample (blood)  and post transplant samples (blood, buccal swab, hair roots) were collected from the recipient (patient). The same were compared with the blood sample of the donor using DNA FP technique. Post transplant samples were collected at different interval of time (15, 30, 60 and 90 days). The study was carried out using Y-STR kit at 23 loci. The results determined discusses the phenomenon of chimerism and its impact on Y-STR . Hair sample was found the moist suitable sample which had no donor DNA profiling upto 90 days.

Digitally Captured Signatures: Introduction & study of the different representations of the recorded biometric data

Nikolaos Kalantzis

Nikolaos Kalantzis

Researcher

Staffordshire University, UK

Greece

ABSTRACT

During the execution of a signature formation with the use of Digitally Captured Signatures (DCS) solution, the biometric data (i.e. X, Y, F and t) are recorded. The raw representation of these data is not familiar to the Forensic Handwriting Expert & it is required for the data to be represented in familiar and recognizable format for examination. The purpose of this presentation is to introduce the basic structure of DCS and biometric documents, to explain the raw data format and the available representations and to discuss the use of forensic software capabilities for the forensic examination of DCS. Finally, the problem of normalization of recorded DCS from different solutions will be discussed.

Simultaneous determination and quantification of selected benzodiazepines, tricyclics, and their metabolites in urine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Abdul Aziz Al Bahri

Abdul Aziz Al Bahri

Forensic Toxicologist- Specialist

Forensic Science laboratory- Muscat- Sultanate of Oman, Oman

Oman

ABSTRACT

Benzodiazepines are the third most common drugs of abuse after opiates and cannabis, in Sultanate of Oman, and amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, and clomipramine are the most detected tricyclic antidepressant compounds in the urine sample cases. With the growing misuse of these compounds, finding a single rapid and sensitive confirmatory methods become imperative to increase the toxicology laboratories throughput. In this study, two enzymes (IMCSzyme 50 K U/mL and β-glucuronidase 150 K U/mL) were systematically evaluated for their hydrolysis efficiencies based on an analyte abundance in each enzyme. Most analytes under study showed higher response with the genetically modified enzyme (IMCSzyme) than with β-glucuronidase from abalone. Based on the efficiency evaluation results, IMCSzyme was utilized in the method validation using electrospray ionization- mass spectrometry in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring modes. The recovery, linearity, matrix effect, carryover, limit of detection, the limit of quantitation, accuracy, and precision of the method were validated. The method was used to analyze over 500 urine case samples that were previously screened for the presence of benzodiazepines and tricyclics. The technique is robust and efficient for routine analysis.

Forensic toxicology: An imperative for criminal justice administration in Nigeria

Christopher Ugwuoke

Christopher Ugwuoke

Professor

University of Nigeria, Nigeria

Nigeria

ABSTRACT

The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance and the envisaged benefits of forensic toxicology in criminal justice administration in Nigeria. Forensic  toxicology is a branch of Forensic Science that is concerned with the investigation of cases associated with poison. The quality of criminal investigation  has remained the primary yardstick for determining the success or failure of the criminal justice system in all modern  jurisdictions including Nigeria.  The advent of forensic science has no doubt increased the efficiency of criminal investigation especially in developed nations.  In developing countries such as Nigeria however, cases of poison are generally not entertained by criminal courts especially in cases  associated with traditional or diabolic medicine or poison.  The introduction of forensic toxicology in criminal investigation in Nigeria would not only enhance the efficiency of criminal justice administration in the country but will also become a veritable means of crime and social control.  Other benefits of the envisaged use of forensic  toxicology in criminal investigation in Nigeria will include the discouragement of the use of unreliable and sometimes harmful  traditional methods of investigation such as oath-taking  and trial by ordeal which most often result in miscarriage of justice.  It is obvious that many innocent  individuals have  become victims of these  unorthodox practices in Nigeria. This paper employs explanations and secondary data to justify the topic of the study. It is expected that  the out-come of this study will have a positive impact on  criminal justice administration not only in Nigeria but in other developing countries as well.

A short account of forensicodontology in France

Riaud Xavier

Riaud Xavier

Associate Professor

National Academy of Dental Surgery, France

France

ABSTRACT

From the Roman Empire till 19th Century, the dental surgeon was a legal consultant. Hisonlyrolewas to givesome informations. From 1897 till 1974, the dental surgeon sometimesparticipated to someassessments. But, hewas not oftensummoned by the magistrates. From 1974 till 1989, the stomatologistsweresummoned more than dental surgeons by the magistrates.  From 1989 till nowadays, the dental surgeons workedinsideForensic teams. Now, aftereachdisaster or each crime, the dental surgeon isalwaysthere.Hereis the true story of ForensicDentistry in France.

Incorporation of digitally captured signatures (Biometric Signatures) to everyday casework of forensic signature examination

Nikolaos Kalantzis

Nikolaos Kalantzis

Researcher

Staffordshire University, UK

Greece

ABSTRACT

Digitally Captured Signatures (DCS) a.k.a. Biometric Signatures constitute a new media that has been introduced in various formats over the last decade. Due to the increasing adaption of the DCS media by the financial industry with subsequent deployment of software/hardware solutions in Banks, Post Offices and government agencies all over the world, DCS inevitably caught the attention of the Forensic Handwriting Examination community. Contrary to the misconception that DCS technology should be approached only when a disputed DCS is part of the casework, we will explore and present the incorporation and use of DCS in typical FHE casework were the questioned signature is in pen and paper form but access to comparison material DCS form is available.

Focal role of effective communication in pharmacovigilance

Tapan Behl

Tapan Behl

Associate Professor

Chitkara University, India

India

ABSTRACT

Communication is a part and parcel of everyone’s life. The role of effective communication isirreplaceable and inseparable part for success of any individual or organization. The same goes in the field of Pharmacovigilance as well, in which effective communications plays a crucial role in regulation ofbetter healthcare management system. In pharmacovigilance, effective communication refers to a type of information which is communicated along with evidence that one’s received andevaluated can initiated appropriate response/alert. This systemic and reliable flow of information travels from patient to healthcare professional,then to pharmaceutical companies and ultimately to Health authorities. This can help in reporting of adverse drug reactions which can help inestablishing the benefit-risk profile of a drug.Effective communication can help in improving patient care, may help in disease management and can promote transparency and accountability of pharma companies towards the patient. As stated by UMC (Uppsala monitoring committee), for better healthcare facilities globally, the role of communication can help in raising awareness regarding the importance of pharmacovigilance which in turn can aid in better reporting of ADRs (Adverse drug reactions).Thus, for the safer use of medicines, the contribution of every individual awareness and vigilance through strong and effective communication is utmost important. This can be achieved by proper training sessions, lectures and social-science-based research which can aid in providing a better and effective platform for ADR reporting and better flow of information from consumers/patients to health authorities.