Day 1 full schedule
September 23, 2020 @ 09:15 - 16:50
Organic aquaculture through probiotic is a green chemistry approach to achieve global one health concept
Keerthi Thalakattil RaghavanProfessor
Mahatma Gandhi University, India
Aquaculture sector is one of the hotspots for AMR genes, an environmental gateway for globalization of AMR. The Organic aquaculture supports One Health concept. Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture is an inevitable support for the global food security and nutrition. Organic aquaculture means farming of aquatic plants and animals with the use of only organic inputs in terms of seeds and supply of nutrients and management of disease. Production of probiotic based feed by utilizing agriculture waste is an organic, ecofriendly and economic approach, which help to reduce the antibiotic usage in aquaculture farm as a measure of disease management. The aim of present study is to select a suitable agricultural organic residue for the development of probiotic fermented functional feed .Initial Screening we have selected 3 agricultural residues such as wheat bran, Rice bran and Copra cake as organic substrate for solid state fermentation of selected probiotics. Growth rate of probiotic and proximate composition of fermented feed are analyzed. Antibacterial activity of fermented probiotic feed was evaluated towards 3 fish pathogens, Aeromonas hydrophila sub sp. hydrophila 1739- causes ulcers, tail and fin rot., 2. Alcaligenes sp. 1424 - skin and soft tissue infection.,3. Flavobacterium sp. 2495- causes gill infection. Production of digestive enzymes such as amylase ,lipase and protease during probiotic fermentation also evaluated. The results suggested that among the three residues, Wheat bran is an ideal substrate of choice. It has also facilitated nutrient as well as act as prebiotic by providing nondigeststable oligosaccharides by the result of probiotic fermentation. Probiotic fermentation also enhances functionality by producing no of secondary metabolites.
Dr. Harisingh Gour Central University, India
Catalysis is one of the fundamental pillars of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The design and application of new catalysts and catalytic systems are simultaneously achieving the dual goals of environmental protection and economic benefit. The economic benefits of green chemistry are central drivers in its advancement. Industry is adopting green chemistry methodologies because they improve the corporate bottom line. A wide array of operating costs are decreased through the use of green chemistry. When less waste is generated, environmental compliance costs go down. Treatment and disposal become unnecessary when waste is eliminated. Decreased solvent usage and fewer processing steps lessen the material and energy costs of manufacturing and increase material efficiency. The environmental, human health, and the economic advantages realized through green chemistry are serving as a strong incentive to industry to adopt greener technologies.
V. K. JainProfessor
Gujarat University, India
Chemical sensing of heavy/toxic metal ions, organic molecules/pesticides and nitro aromatic explosives in aqueous medium is one of the major issue. Since synthesis of calix and calix based metal nanoparticles involves environmentally benign greener route/microwave irradiation method they play a key role in analyte recognition. Calixarenes are versatile macrocyclic molecules which can be modified structurally at upper and lower rims to create various types of host structures. The evidence lies for the growing use of functionalized calix systems in applications like catalysts and molecular sensors. Calixarenes serve as precursors for building different molecular platforms, some of which are oxacalixarenes, thiacalixarenes, calixresorcinarenes, azacalixarenes, calixpyrroles. In our research work, we have developed sensors for explosives, pesticides and environmentally relevant ions using these calix systems. Calixarenes with inherent hollow cavity can easily be functionalized with nanoparticles by capping, modifying, reducing, stabilizing and templating them. The well statured calixarenes can form hybrid structures with highly organized nanoparticles. Different calix hydrazide systems, calixpyrrole, resorcinarenes, thiacalixarene have been used and reported by our research group to prepare gold, silver, gold-silver alloy, platinum and palladium nanoparticles and utilize them as sensors and catalysts. The nanoparticles being chromogenic and fluorogenic in nature, proves to be a selective and sensitive ion sensor for various guest analytes such as ions and biomolecules. These nanoparticles have also been explored as catalysts in 50% aqueous system for organic chemical reactions: Suzuki, Heck, Sonogashira and Stille reactions. The biological applications in aqueous medium are also being explored for their use as a better antimicrobial agent which can form a future basis for their potential use in new pharmaceutical formulations.
Wilson College, India
The oxidation of the perfumery phenols ,Eugenol (2-Methoxy-4-(prop-2-en-1-yl)phenol ) and its isomer Isoeugenol (2-Methoxy-4-(prop-1-en-1-yl)phenol) to the corresponding quinines has been carried out using inorganic oxidants,Potassium bromate and Potassium iodate in mildly acidic medium.These phenols are found in the Indian spices,clove(Syzygium Aromaticum) and nutmeg (Myristicafragrans HOUTT) and are used in the preparation of perfumes and fragrances. The oxidation was monitored under first order conditions with respect to the inorganic oxidants. The progress of the oxidation was monitored iodometrically.The rate of oxidation of phenol was determined from the first order kinetic plots of log(unreacted oxidant) versus time.The effects of phenol and oxidant concentrations on the rates of oxidation of phenols were studied.
For both oxidants, the oxidation rates followed the sequence : Isoeugenol > Eugenol which has been explained on the basis of steric factors, structural and isomeric characteristics of the perfumery phenols under study.KBrO3 was found to be a stronger oxidant than KIO3 for both phenols .Suitable reaction mechanisms have been suggested for the oxidation of phenols.
Novel representative of poly(sugar acids): phenolic derivative of acidic polysaccharide poly(2,3-glyceric acid ether] from medicinal plants of Boraginaceae family and its therapeutic efficacy
Vakhtang BarbakadzeTbilisi State Medical University
Tbilisi State Medical University I.Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry, Georgia
The main chemical constituent of high molecular (>1000 kDa) water-soluble preparations from medicinal plants of Symphytum asperum, S.caucasicum, S.officinale, S.grandiflorum, Anchusa italica, Cynoglossum officinale and Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae) according to data of liquid-state 1H, 13C NMR, 2D 1H/13C HSQC, 2D DOSY and solid-state 13C NMR spectra was found to be poly[oxy-1-carboxy-2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylene] or poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid] (PDPGA) [1-4]. The polyoxyethylene chain is the backbone of this polymer molecule with a residue of 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)glyceric acid as the repeating unit. PDPGA as a 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl derivative of poly(2,3-glyceric acid ether) belongs to a class of an acidic polysaccharides [poly(sugar acids)] as well. Its basic monomeric moiety glyceric acid is oxidative form of aldotriose glyceraldehyde. In this case poly(2,3-glyceric acid ether) chain is the backbone of this polymer molecule and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl groups are regular substituents at carbon atoms in the chain. Oligomers of PDPGA was synthesized by enzymatic ring opening polymerization of methyl 3-(3,4-dibenzyloxyphenyl)glycidate using lipase from Candida rugosa. The enzymatic polymerization is a “green” chemistry alternative to classic chemical synthesis as it utilizes processes that minimize the use and generation of hazardous substances. That is why it is the method of preference for the synthesis of biologically active natural polyether analogues. Enzymatically obtained oligomers causes interest for diverse biological tests. PDPGA showed immunomodulatery (anticomplementary) and antioxidant activities. Hyaluronidase (Hyal-1) degrades high molecular mass Hyaluronic acid into smaller fragments which have pro-inflammatory effects. PDPGA possesses the ability to inhibit the enzymatic activity of Hyal-1 completely. Consequently, PDPGA exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacy. PDPGA exerted anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo against androgen-dependent and -independent human prostate cancer (PCA) cells via targeting androgen receptor, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis without any toxicity, together with a strong decrease in prostate specific antigen level in plasma. Thus, PDPGA was identified as a potent agent against PCA without any toxicity .
S. K. MehtaProfessor
Panjab University, India
Mesoporous silica materials have always represented an exceptional dominance in the field of material synthesis owing to the exploitation of their superior surface properties. Consequently, they have earned wider applicability in various fields ranging from catalysis, adsorption, nano-casting, chromatography and medicine. Different approaches have been developed to synthesize mesostructured silica materials using chemical sources like silicon alkoxide (silicon tetraethoxysilane) as the typical silicon source and expensive structure directing agents. However, in response to the growing environment concern, sustainability issues associated with the silica precursors, harsh synthetic conditions and high cost of its production limit their manufacture at an industrial scale. Moreover, the structuring agents (surfactants) used in the synthesis process, being non-biodegradable are generally lost during the last step of mesoporous silica synthesis. So, there has been an emergent need to develop more environment-friendly and sustainable procedures for synthesizing mesoporous silica nanostructures. Keeping in view the credentials of green chemistry, ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) materials were synthesized from industrial wastes like Coal Fly ash used as the silica source. It not only makes the entire synthesis process cost-effective which is the emergent need of material synthesis but caters to deal with the problem of waste disposal associated with the coal power plants. Since the synthesized silica materials are efficient adsorbents so they were effectively utilized for the degradation of dyes present in waste water that contains toxic organic and inorganic chemicals and causes serious soil and water pollution. In this regard, the current work discusses the greener and sustainable synthesis of mesoporous silica nanostructures and employing their use for waste water treatment.
Mn supported on Ce substituted hydroxyapatite for VOC oxidation: catalytic activity and calcination effect
P. M. MoreProfessor
Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai, India
The Mn supported on Ce substituted hydroxyapatite (HAp) catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation method and investigated for the low-temperature oxidation of toluene as a model component of VOC. The present work demonstrated the substitution of Ce in HAp in place of Ca. Furthermore, the effect of calcination temperature on oxidation activity of the catalyst was examined by calcining the catalyst at 400, 500 and 600 ºC. The low-temperature calcination could favour the insertion of Ce in HAp, whereas higher calcination temperature could lead to the formation of separate CeO2 phase. The catalyst was characterized by using XRD, surface area, XPS, H2-TPR, ATR-FTIR techniques. The probable bonding between Ce and hexagonal HAp, which favors the oxidation of toluene at lower temperature has been explained with the calcination effect. The Ce substitution in HAp leads to the decrease in toluene activation energy which consequently increases the toluene conversion rate. The improvement in Mn2O3/Mn3O4 ↔ MnO2 redox cycle was observed due to the Ce substitution compared to unsubstituted Mn supported on HAp. The ATR-FTIR toluene adsorption study demonstrated the plausible mechanism of toluene oxidation. The activation of toluene on Ce substituted catalyst surface could proceed through the adsorption of the -CH3 group, whereas toluene adsorbed on unsubstituted catalyst surface through ortho, meta or para C-H bond.
Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai
Surfactants have shown high efficacy as green stabilizing agents and their amphiphilic nature has widely been exploited for many biological applications and drug formulations. They are among the widely used coatings for nano-surfaces. Nanoparticles depict dimensional resemblance to biological macromolecules and have a varied range of applications at the interface of biology and material science. They are widely tested for their potential in drug delivery applications, diagnostic tools, and various therapies. Their introduction in the biological milieu exposes them to macromolecules, including proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids and lipids. It has been found that serum proteins rapidly associate with nanoparticles to form a “protein corona” and thus facilitates their biodistribution and cellular uptake. The nature of these nanoparticle-biomacromolecule interactions can profoundly influence the NPs in-vivo fate, function and toxicity. Their association depends upon the affinity of the proteins towards nanoparticles which in turn is highly affected by the structure of nanoparticle surface. Thus it is important to understand the controlling factors such as, size, type of coatings etc., for the cellular response towards nano-modalities while designing bio-nanomaterials. We believe choice of suitable surface modifier can help in achieving above goals, hence there is a need for understanding the interfacial dynamics which can help a researcher in choosing appropriate surface modifier for designing benign nanomaterials. For a long-term effective use, the nano-surfaces should retain the modifier in vivo and provide effective shielding to nanoparticles corrosive body from exposing it to plasma fluids and cells, thus it becomes essential to investigate the binding phenomenon of coating material and nanoparticles surface. The main objective of the talk is to enumerate information on choosing effective surfactant coatings for nano-entities of biomedical importance to improve their overall sustainability and efficiency. The rational designing of nanomaterials will lead to their more efficient usage along with reduced toxicity and less wastage.
IMPACT OF EROSION PROCESS TO FERTILITY OFMOUNTAIN-CHERNOZEM SITUATING IN SOUTH-EAST SLOPE OF GREAT CAUCASIAN
Institute of Erosion and Irrigation of ANAS
Annotation: The complexity, sharp change in the relief condition, the tension of the anthropogenic factors in the Shamakhi region, where we have investigated, has intensified the erosion process. Because of the lack of agrotechnical measures on the slopes, the erosion process has been intensified, the soil is flooded with soil, the physical and chemical properties of the soil have deteriorated, the nutritional elements have declined, the vegetation has been degraded and reached the limit of destruction. For some reason, the object of research was Shamakhi two land cuts were set up to determine the degree of actual erosion of the soil in the village of Melam. which will result in preventive measures to prevent erosion intensities and to develop and implement appropriate preventive measures.
Microwave Irradiation and Catalysis in Organophosphorus Chemistry – Green Synthesis of Organophosphorus Compounds
Department of Organic Chemistry and Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics
The microwave (MW) technique has become an important tool in organophosphorus chemistry. In this paper, the advantages of MWs in different catalytic reactions are surveyed allowing green chemical accomplishments. The first case is, when the MW-assisted direct esterification of phosphinic acids becomes more efficient in the presence of an ionic liquid catalyst. The second instance is, when catalytic reactions, such as the phase transfer catalyzed (PTC) O-alkylation of phosphinic acids, or the Arbuzov reaction of aryl bromides are promoted further by MW irradiation. It is also an option that MWs may substitute catalysts, such as in the solid liquid phase PTC alkylation of active methylene containing P-derivatives, in Kabachnik–Fields condensations of amines, aldehydes and >P(O)H reagents, and in reluctant deoxygenations of phosphine oxides. Another valuable finding of ours is that in the Hirao P–C coupling of 3P(O)H reagents and bromoarenes applying Pd(OAc)2 as the catalyst, the slight excess of the >P(O)H species in its tautomeric >POH form may substitute the usual P-ligands. It is also the purpose of this paper to elucidate the scope and limitations of the MW tool, to interpret the special MW effects, and to model the distribution and effect of the local overheatings. All these considerations were possible on the basis of the results of our quantum chemical calculations, and utilizing the pseudo first order kinetic equation, as well as the Arrhenius equation.
Director, Environmental Compliance
Accordingly, green chemistry (also known as sustainable chemistry) has the potential to reduce pollution at its source by minimizing and/or eliminating the hazards of chemical feedstocks, reagents, solvents, and products. Essentially, the concept of greening chemistry was developed in the business and regulatory communities as a natural evolution of pollution prevention initiatives. The question that comes to mind is how can green chemistry help advance the goal of sustainable development? In “Our Common Future”, sustainable development was defined as “development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (Brundtland Report, 1987). Therefore, one could suggest that green chemistry could be one of the most important fields to help “meet the needs of future generations to come”
Biogenically synthesized silver nanoparticles from green algae (Botryococcus braunii) and its catalytic behavior for the synthesis of benzimidazoles
Tejpal SinghAssistant Professor
The NorthCap University
In recent research interest metal nanoparticles have been synthesized extensively for a variety of applications and gaining enormous research attention in various areas such as chemistry, physics, life science, material science, medical science, nanomedicine and engineering due to size and shape tune able properties. Nanoparticles posses unique optical, magnetic, electronic and catalytic properties with their distinctive feature of size and shape. The chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles requires chemical reducing agent to convert metal ion to metal nanoparticles and involves undesired use of aggressive and hazardous chemicals. Relative to these chemical syntheses, methods of green synthesis that use ecofriendly compounds as reducing agents in place of hazardous and aggressive chemicals. The emphasis on green synthesis of metal nanoparticles and its catalytic property for a maximum societal benefit with minimal impact on the ecosystem.
Shweta SharmaAssistant Professor
Panjab University, Chandigarh
The recent era have witnessed an impeding challenge, when it comes to dealing with bacterial infraction based pathogenesis. Keeping this as a base, the present work has been primarily envisioned on fabricating a noble nano delivery system for combating the aforementioned grave lacunae in a comprehensive manner. Current work was solely coveted towards envisaging a polymer-silver nanocomposite (PLGA-Ag-NCs) via employing the illustrious principles of green chemistry for biomedical applications. In the prime stage, facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) was carried out by employing a bio-mimetic approach. The extract of Eugenia jambolana was used as the precursor excipients, which played a synergistic role in the reduction and capping (stabilization) of Ag+ into zero valent (viz. Ag 0) Ag-NPs. Thereafter, the as synthesized Ag-NPs were incorporated within the polymeric PLGA nanoparticles for the fabrication of nanocomposites. In the preceding stages two different non-ionic surfactants were also used to formulate diverse nanocomposites (PLGA-Ag NC (PEG) and PLGA-Ag NC (P80)). Disc diffusion and time-kill assay were performed on bacterial strains viz. Escherichia coli (E.coli MTCC 40), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.aeruginosa MTCC 4673) for evaluating the antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs and PLGA-Ag NCs.
Ahwan PanigrahiIISC, Bengaluru
Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru
Imidazole is an important privileged structural motif found in number of natural products. The natural products containing imidazole ring act as a pharmacophore with a wide range of biological activities like antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiulcer. Because of its significance in medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry, it is important to synthesize the derivatives of these compounds starting from readily available raw materials. In comparison with transition metal catalyzed cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) reactions, iodine catalyzed reactions are inexpensive, environmentally benign and known to be chemoselective.1In this direction, we developed a double C-H functionalization of cyclopentenedione with benzamidine hydrochloride catalyzed by iodine for synthesizing fused imidazole derivatives. This methodology leads to a variety of fused imidazole derivatives and requires a sub-stoichiometric amount of iodine (30 mol %) as a catalyst and aqueous tertiarybutylperoxide (TBHP) as an oxidant. This reaction involves a double-cross dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) of 1,3-cyclpenetenedione and benzamidine hydrochloride to form two C-N bonds in a consecutive manner within short reaction time. A plausible mechanism has been proposed based on the mass spectrometric analysis.
Jaspreet KaurS.Research Fellow
Porous carbon material is quite exclusive with a wide range of technologically important applications, including heterogeneous catalyst supports, water purification filters, stationary phase materials, as well as the developing future areas of energy generation and storage applications. The production of carbon materials from biomass (i.e. sugars or polysaccharides) is a relatively new but rapidly expanding research area. Here in we report the greener route for the fabrication of porous carbon material and the effect of metal doping in it. The resulting composite was characterized by different techniques like IR, SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD, XPS, solid state NMR, STA etc. The formed composite was explored for the degradation of a common water pollutant- Para-Nitrophenol and its antioxidant capacity was estimated by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay.
Nanoemulsion as a potential carrier for encapsulation, stabilization and dissolution of Immunomodulators
Jyothi RatheeResearch Scholar
Minute differences between therapeutic and toxic concentrations severely limit the clinical utility of many potent drugs. Moreover, the preparation of novel formulations can overcome these limitations. Fabrication of novel drugs is complicated, expensive and time consuming process that involves preclinical testing, clinical trials (phase I, II, and III) and food and drug administration (FDA) approval. The present study delineates the formulation of nanoemulsion using greener sonication method. The prepared formulations are quite stable as assessed using absorption spectroscopy. The formulations have been characterized using particle size analyzer, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, UV-Visible Spectroscopy. The stability and encapsulation efficiency of Immunomodulators in the emulsion have also been assessed and high encapsulation efficiency is observed. Release studies and kinetics have been carried out to investigate the release behavior of drugs from the prepared formulations