Track 1. Histopathology:
Histopathology is the diagnosis and study of diseases of the tissues, and involves examining tissues and/or cells under a microscope. Histopathologists are responsible for making tissue diagnoses and helping clinicians manage a patient’s care.
Histopathologists provide a diagnostic service for cancer; they handle the cells and tissues removed from suspicious ‘lumps and bumps’, identify the nature of the abnormality and, if malignant, provide information to the clinician about the type of cancer, its grade and, for some cancers, its responsiveness to certain treatments. Histopathology reports on surgical cancer specimens are more and more complex. They may include:
- The microscopic appearance of the involved tissue
- Special stains
- Molecular techniques
- Other tests
Track 2. Cytopathology:
Cytopathology is the study of individual cells in disease. Sampled fluid/ tissue from a patient is smeared onto a slide and stained. This is then examined under the microscope by the anatomical pathologist to look at the number of cells on the slide, what types of cells they are, how they are grouped together and what the cell details are (shape, size, nucleus etc.), This information is useful in determining whether a disease is present and what is the likely diagnosis. Cytopathology has since played a key role in clinical diagnosis of cancerous and pre-cancerous disease states, benign tumors, and some infectious diseases. The field now encompasses a wide range of techniques for a variety of tissues.
Track 3. Pathology:
Pathology is the medical discipline that provides diagnostic information to patients and clinicians. It impacts nearly all aspects of patient care, from diagnosing cancer to managing chronic diseases through accurate laboratory testing. The Pathology consists of two areas: Histopathology and Cytopathology. Histology involves the study of tissue and Cytology involves the study of cells, both of which are derived from various organs of the human body.
Track 4. Immunohistochemistry:
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a powerful microscopy-based technique for visualizing cellular components, for instance proteins or other macromolecules in tissue samples. The strength of IHC is the intuitive visual output that reveals the existence and localization of the target-protein in the context of different cell types, biological states, and/or subcellular localization within complex tissues. In Immunohistochemistry there are primary and secondary antibodies used. Primary antibodies bind directly to the antigen, while secondary antibodies bind to the primary antibody. When selecting primary antibodies for IHC, there are three types of antibody preparations to choose from for IHC: polyclonal antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, or pooled monoclonal antibodies.
Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies each have advantages and disadvantages:
- Polyclonal antibodies result in greater staining and excellent signal, but can give false positives by binding unwanted sites.
- Monoclonal antibodies have a high specificity, reducing the number of false positive bindings, but often hive a much weaker stain.
- Pooled monoclonal antibodies also give excellent staining, as well as high specificity however there is limited availability for pooled monoclonal antibodies that do not bind noncompetitively.
Immunohistochemistry is a popular technique for visualization in fields like cancer, neuroscience, and infectious diseases.
Track 5. Dermatopathology:
Dermatopathology is a subspecialty of pathology. Dermatopathology is the study of cutaneous diseases at a microscopic level, which also involves studying potential causes of skin, nail or hair disorders at the cellular level. It is a subspecialty of dermatology and surgical pathology. There are more than 1,500 disorders of the skin, ranging from rashes to cancers. Accordingly, dermatopathology is a broad field that requires dermatopathologists to work with a variety of different physicians and specialists, including pediatricians.
Track 6. Forensic Pathology:
Forensic Pathology involves, identifying the cause of death by examining a corpse. It plays an important role in criminal investigation, which involves examination of DNA, bones and blood samples, etc. The autopsy is done by a medical examiner, generally for the duration of the enquiry of criminal law cases and civil law cases in certain jurisdictions. Coroners, health inspectors are also regularly queried to approve the identity of a dead body. Forensic pathology is a presentation of medical jurisprudence. Pathology is the study of disease and its causes. Forensic pathology includes noticing the reason of demise, particularly in circumstances where it is unexpected or the police force doubtful that it has not happened by ordinary reasons.
Track 7. Clinical Pathology:
Clinical pathology supports the diagnosis of disease using laboratory testing of blood and other bodily fluids, tissues, and microscopic evaluation of individual cells. Clinical pathology is collection of samples for analytical work performed in a clinical laboratory through specific pathology fields and it includes clinical chemistry, hematology and microbiology. It consists of simple blood test, microbiological tests as well as other fluid tests to detect, diagnose and monitor various disease related conditions. Entire procedure may involve a routine health check, a diagnostic test aimed at detecting a particular condition or disease and follow-up tests to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment for a condition, which are often a series of easy to administer, convenient tests conducted at special laboratories to deliver quick and fairly accurate results.
Track 8. Breast Cancer Pathology:
In this pathological process when your breast was biopsied, the samples taken were studied under the microscope by a specialized doctor with many years of training called a pathologist. The pathologist sends your doctor a report that gives a diagnosis for each sample taken. Information in this report will be used to help manage your care. The information here is meant to help you understand medical language you might find in the pathology report from a breast biopsy, such as a needle biopsy or an excision biopsy.
Track 9. Cell Morphology:
Cell morphology is essential in identifying the shape, structure, form, and size of cells. In bacteriology, for instance, cell morphology pertains to the shape of bacteria if cocci, bacilli, spiral, etc., and the size of bacteria.
Track 10. Cell Biology and Genetics:
Our improved understanding of the genetic basis for life has opened up new approaches for the investigation, diagnosis and treatment of disease. It is studied at the level of whole organisms (classical or transmission genetics), the DNA itself (molecular genetics), or whole populations (population and evolutionary genetics). Geneticists use molecular approaches to investigate how genes determine physical traits, including susceptibility to diseases and inherited disorders. Cell biology focuses on the structure and function of the components of living cells (such as the cell membrane, the flagella responsible for cell movements, cell differentiation in developing organisms, abnormal cell division, and metabolic interactions between cell compartments).